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CrossMark, Correction and Retraction Policy

CrossMark policy

CrossMark is a multi-publisher initiative to provide a standard way for readers to locate the current version of a piece of content. By applying the CrossMark logo the Geological Society of London is committing to maintaining the content it publishes and to alerting readers to changes if and when they occur.

Clicking on the CrossMark logo will tell you the current status of a document and will also give you the title of paper, the journal title and the publication date.

Details of our correction and retraction policy follow.

Correction and retraction policy

It is our policy to amend, alter or remove the published scientific record according to the COPE Code of Conduct, which is available at This applies to main articles and associated supplementary material.

Whenever it is recognized that a significant inaccuracy, misleading statement or distorted report has been published, it will be corrected with due prominence. This could take various forms:
  • For an item that has been published only in Online First, a new version with the same DOI will be published. Both original and new versions will be available online.
  • For an item that has been published in an issue or book, a formal erratum will be published.
  • For an item that has been published in an issue or book, which requires additional information or clarification, an addendum will be published.
  • If after an appropriate investigation, an item proves to be fraudulent, it will be retracted.

Format of correction and retraction notices

  • Versions, errata and addenda are written so that the reader can identify and understand the correction in context with the errors made or why the article is being retracted.
  • Errata and addenda have their own unique DOI but are electronically linked with the original electronic publication.
  • To remain consistent with the version of record, the original article is not changed or removed, but is clearly marked as corrected/retracted, etc.
  • Errata and addenda are published in a form that enables indexing and abstracting services to identify and link corrections and retractions.
  • Errata will be published at the end of the next available issue and will appear on the table of contents (TOC).
  • A notice of duplicate publication will reference both of the duplicate articles.

Examples when a correction or retraction should be considered


We will consider issuing a correction if:

  • the scientific record is seriously affected, for example, with regard to the scientific accuracy of published information
  • a small portion of an otherwise reliable publication proves to be misleading (especially because of honest error)
  • the author/contributor/funding list is incorrect (i.e. a deserving author has been omitted or somebody who does not meet authorship criteria has been included or there is an error in the funding information section)
We will not usually publish a correction that does not affect the contribution in a material way or if the issue does not significantly impair the reader's understanding of the contribution, e.g. a spelling mistake or grammatical error.
We will consider issuing a retraction notice if:
  • we have clear evidence that the findings are unreliable, either as a result of misconduct (e.g. data fabrication) or honest error (e.g. miscalculation or experimental error)
  • the findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper cross-referencing, permission or justification (i.e. cases of duplicate publication)
  • the publication constitutes plagiarism
  • the publication reports unethical research